Demographics: Understanding the Cuban Population in 2023

Demographics: Understanding the Cuban Population in 2023

Cuba is an island country in the Caribbean, known for its sugarcane, tobacco, and rum production. In addition to its rich cultural heritage, Cuba’s economy is also influenced heavily by the state’s policies. Since the socialist revolution in the 1960s, Cuba has undergone significant economic reforms but is still considered a socialist economy. This article aims to provide a detailed analysis of the Cuban population in 2023, including its size, age distribution, education level, and more.

Population Size

As of 2023, the population of Cuba stands at roughly 11.3 million, with an urbanization rate of 77%. According to the Population Division of the United Nations, Cuba’s population will increase slightly over the next decade, reaching 11.7 million by 2030. The data marks a minimal fluctuation since the 2012 Cuban Census, which reported a population of 11.2 million.

Age Distribution

The age distribution in Cuba is diverse, with a significant proportion of the population in the 40-64 age range. As of 2023, roughly 27% of the population is between 0-14 years old, while 21% are between 15-29 years old. Those aged between 30-44 years constitute 19%, while 26% are between 45-64. Cuba has an aging population with a median age of 40.5 years old, higher than the average of most developed nations.

Education Level

Cuba’s literacy rate is approximately 99.8%, one of the highest in the world. The government heavily invests in education, making it a vital priority for young people. Primary, secondary, and tertiary education is free. The country has an extensive education system, and higher education is accessible to almost all of the population, with a 78% gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education.

Gender Distribution

Cuba has a relatively equal gender distribution. The population is 49% male and 51% female, and gender roles in Cuba are not as rigid as in many other countries. Women in Cuba have equal access to education and employment. As of 2013, women held 49% of positions in parliament, one of the highest percentages globally.

Income and Employment

The average salary in Cuba is around $30 per month, though it ranges significantly based on employment type. The government heavily regulates and operates much of the economy. In 2020, around 71% of the Cuban workforce was employed in the state sector.

Tourism is a significant source of income for the country, generating approximately three billion dollars a year. In recent years, the government has relaxed restrictions on self-employment, which has led to the creation of small businesses. However, these enterprises remain highly regulated and must abide by strict government policies.


Q. How do demographics impact the economy of Cuba?

A. Cuba is a socialist country, and many policies impact the economy. The government controls all industries in the country, and demographic trends inform the direction of the economy. For example, as the population ages and fewer youth enter the job market, the government may implement policies to promote self-employment or foreign investment.

Q. How does the education system in Cuba differ from other countries?

A. Cuba’s education system places a strong emphasis on achieving near-universal literacy. The government has invested heavily in education, with primary, secondary, and tertiary education provided for free. While Cuban universities are often regarded as high-quality, the government restricts academic freedom, and students must adhere to strict policies.

Q. What is the role of tourism in the Cuban economy?

A. Tourism is a critical source of income for the Cuban economy, even though significant restrictions and regulations exist for tourists. The country’s unique cultural heritage, architecture, and landscape attract a large number of visitors, who generate around three billion dollars in revenue per year.

Q. How does Cuba’s system of government impact the population?

A. Cuba is a socialist republic with a one-party system ruled by the Communist Party of Cuba. The government heavily regulates all aspects of life, including education, employment, and the economy. While policies provide access to basic needs, the government restricts political freedom and also, access to many consumer goods is limited.


Cuba’s population is unique and diverse, with an ageing population and a high investment in education and healthcare. Despite its smaller size, Cuba presents an excellent example of a socialist economy, with many of the basic needs of the population covered by the state. The country’s economic success in the future may depend on how it continues to adapt to demographic trends in the population. Nonetheless, Cuba’s rich culture, history, and sustainable environmental practices make it a destination with continued potential for revenue growth.

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